Modernity and the Nation in Mexican Representations of Masculinity: From Sensuality to Bloodshed

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Library Home page Menu. Search form Search. Search Type Keyword. In the Western US, the regular cultural lynching Chinese people yielded the coinage of a phrase, " Having a Chinaman's chance in Hell ", meaning no chance at all. In Oregon, 34 Chinese gold miners were ambushed, robbed and killed in the Hells Canyon Massacre Seeing that the heading is an appeal to American citizens, to their love of country and liberty, I feel my countrymen, and myself, are honored in being thus appealed to, as citizens in the cause of liberty.

But the word liberty makes me think of the fact that this country is a land of liberty for men of all nations, except the Chinese. I consider it an insult to us Chinese to call on us to contribute towards building, in this land, a pedestal for a statue of liberty. That statue represents Liberty holding a torch, which lights the passage of those of all nations who come into this country.

But are Chinese allowed to come? As for the Chinese who are here, are they allowed to enjoy liberty as men of all other nationalities enjoy it? Are they allowed to go about everywhere free from insults, abuse, assaults, wrongs and injuries from which men of other nationalities are free? Under nativist political pressure, the Immigration Act of established an Asian Barred Zone of countries from which immigration to the US was forbidden. The Cable Act of , or the Married Women's Independent Nationality Act, guaranteed citizenship to independent woman unless they married to an alien ineligible to naturalization.

Analogously, the Act allowed revocation of the US citizenship of a white woman married an Asian man.

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United States , a Japanese—American man tried to demonstrate that the Japanese are a white race eligible for naturalized US citizenship, but the Court ruled that the Japanese are not white people. Two years later, the National Origins Quota of specifically excluded the Japanese from the country and citizenship. To "preserve the ideal of American homogeneity", the Emergency Quota Act of numeric limits and the Immigration Act of fewer Southern and Eastern Europeans restricted admission according to immigrants' national origins. Still, to protect the ethnic supremacy social, economic and political of the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant WASP community, [ citation needed ] the Immigration Act of used the census of two decades old because [ citation needed ] its 19th-century demographic-group percentages favoured more admissions of WASP immigrants and fewer admissions of colored immigrants from Asia, Eastern Europe and Southern Europe.

The National Origins Formula — was meant to maintain the status quo percentages of colored ethnic populations in proportion to their existing populations. To that end, the National Origins Formula allowed only , colored people to immigrate the US per year. Specifically inclining Latin Americans and excluding Asians, the law used Yellow Peril racism, which was institutionally inherent to US immigration law. It was much later that the Immigration and Nationality Act of that repealed the racial quota systems. They expressed with biological language infection, disease, decay and imagery of bodily penetration wounds and sores by the nonwhite Asian Other.

In The Yellow Peril; or, Orient vs. Occident , the end time evangelist G. Rupert , said that Russia would unite the colored races to facilitate the Oriental invasion, conquest and subjugation of the West. That was derived from the Christian eschatology of the Book of Revelation in verse "Then the sixth angel poured out his bowl on the great Euphrates River, and it dried up so that the kings from the east could march their armies toward the west without hindrance".

In The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy , the eugenicist Lothrop Stoddard , said that either China or Japan would unite the colored peoples of Asia and lead them to destroy the white world of the West and that the colored conquest of the world began with the Asian victory in the Russo—Japanese War As a white supremacist , Stoddard presented his racialist theories with biblical vocabulary and catastrophic imagery depicting a rising tide of "non-white" people who mean to invade, conquer and subjugate the white race.

In that cultural vein, the phrase was commonly used editorially in the newspapers of publisher William Randolph Hearst. Publisher Hearst's business acumen saw that reporting the socially-scandalous private life of a politically-active American white woman in an interracial relationship with an Asian man would sell more newspapers. Moto Peter Lorre , originally literary detectives in novels and comic strips. White actors portrayed the Asian men and made the fictional characters socially acceptable in mainstream American cinema, especially when the villains were secret agents of Imperial Japan.

The media coverage print, radio and cinema of the Second Sino-Japanese War —45 favoured China, which politically facilitated the American financing and equipping of the anticommunist Kuomintang , the Chiang Kai-shek faction in the Chinese Civil War —, — , which also featured the Communist Mao Zedong. In political compliance with the government, the American media then modified the use of Yellow Peril ideology and criticised contemporary anti-Chinese laws as counterproductive to the war effort against Imperial Japan. However, in the course of his political and personal relations with the US government, and his China Lobby sponsors, Chiang requested the repeal of American anti-Chinese laws and to achieve the repeals, threatened to exclude the American business community from the "China Market", the economic fantasy that the China Lobby promised to the military and industrial interests of the US.

Science fiction writer William F. Wu , said that American adventure, crime, and detective pulp magazines in the s had many Yellow Peril characters, loosely based on Fu Manchu , and that although "most [Yellow Peril characters] were of Chinese descent", the Asian geopolitics of the time led people to see Japan as a threat to the United States.

Most Europeans had never seen an Asian man or woman, and the great differences in language, custom and physique accounted for European paranoia about the nonwhite peoples from the Eastern world. In the late 19th century, Australians desiring a proper country and a white society, feared the Yellow Peril for possession of the continent. They usually featured an Asian invasion of the "empty north" of Australia, which was really populated by the Aboriginal Australians , the native non-white Other. As Australian invasion literature, White or Yellow?

In the near future, British capitalists manipulate the legal system and successfully arrange the mass immigration of Chinese workers to Australia, regardless of the socioeconomic consequences to Australian common folk and their society. The economic, cultural, and sexual conflicts that resulted from the capitalists' manipulation of the economy provoke a white-yellow race war throughout Australia. The racialist representations of Yellow Peril ideology in the narrative of White or Yellow? Culturally, Asian-invasion novels expressed the white man's sexual fear of voracious Asian sexuality with scenes of a white woman in sexual peril, usually rape or seduction, aided by the sensual and moral release of opium.

Thus defiled, the woman is a sexual untouchable to other white men. In , the Australian federal government adopted the White Australia policies, initiated with the Immigration Restriction Act , which generally excluded Asian peoples, especially the Chinese and the Melanesians.

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Historian C. Bean said that Australian racialist exclusion was "a vehement effort to maintain a high, Western standard of economy, society, and culture necessitating, at that stage, however it might be camouflaged, the rigid exclusion of Oriental peoples ". The equality of nations being a basic principle of the League of Nations, the High Contracting Parties agree to accord, as soon as possible, to all alien nationals of states, members of the League, equal and just treatment in every respect, making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality.

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Aware that Britain opposed the formal inclusion of the clause to Article 21 of the Covenant, the conference chairman, US President Woodrow Wilson , prevented de jure racial equality among the nations of the world by unilaterally requiring a unanimous vote by the participant countries. On 11 April , most countries in the conference voted to include a universal clause for racial equality Article 21 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, opposed only by Britain and the US.

Moreover, to maintain the White Australia policy, the Australian government sided with Britain in the vote against Japan's clause for racial equality, a defeat in international relations that greatly influenced Imperial Japan to turn from co-operation to confrontation with the West. Then, France would possess enough soldiers to thwart the eventual flood of immigrants from Asia. The "Yellow Peril" has entered already into the imagination of the people, just as represented in the famous drawing [ Peoples of Europe, Guard Your Most Sacred Possessions ,] of the Emperor Wilhelm II: In a setting of conflagration and carnage, Japanese and Chinese hordes spread out over all Europe, crushing under their feet the ruins of our capital cities and destroying our civilizations, grown anemic due to the enjoyment of luxuries, and corrupted by the vanity of spirit.

Hence, little by little, there emerges the idea that even if a day must come and that day does not seem near the European peoples will cease to be their own enemies and even economic rivals, there will be a struggle ahead to face and there will rise a new peril, the yellow man. The civilized world has always organized itself before and against a common adversary: for the Roman world, it was the barbarian; for the Christian world, it was Islam; for the world of tomorrow, it may well be the yellow man.

And so we have the reappearance of this necessary concept, without which peoples do not know themselves, just as the "Me" only takes conscience of itself in opposition to the " non-Me ": The Enemy. Despite the Christian idealism of the civilizing mission , from the start of colonialisation in , the French exploited the land of Vietnam as inexhaustible and the Vietnamese people as beasts of burden.

French colonial official accompanied by a barely-dressed, blonde French woman. This will help us balance our trade deficit and give you a good laugh". In the 20th century, from their perspective, as non-white nations in a world order dominated by the white nations, the geopolitics of Ethiopia—Japan relations allowed Imperial Japan and Ethiopia to avoid European imperial colonisation of their countries and nations.

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Before the Second Italo-Ethiopian War — , Imperial Japan had given diplomatic and military support to Ethiopia against invasion by the Fascist Italy , which implied military assistance. In response to that Asian anti-imperialism, Benito Mussolini ordered a Yellow Peril propaganda campaign by the Italian press, which represented Imperial Japan as the military, cultural, and existential threat to the Western world, by way of the dangerous "yellow race—black race" alliance meant to unite Asians and Africans against the white people of the world.

Madero killed Asian people Chinese, 5 Japanese , because they were deemed a cultural threat to the Mexican way of life. During and after the Mexican Revolution, the Roman Catholic prejudices of Yellow Peril ideology facilitated racial discrimination and violence against Chinese Mexicans, usually for "stealing jobs" from native Mexicans, etc. Anti—Chinese, nativist propaganda misrepresented the Chinese people as unhygienic, prone to immorality miscegenation, gambling, opium-smoking and spreading diseases that would biologically corrupt and degenerate La Raza the Mexican race and generally undermining the Mexican patriarchy.

The CuP greatly admired the Japanese for modernising their country while retaining its "Eastern spiritual essence", and it proclaimed its intention to transform the Ottoman Empire into the "Japan of the Near East".

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In an inversion of the Yellow Peril racism of the Western world, the Young Turks thought of entering an alliance with Imperial Japan that would unite all the peoples of "the East" to wage a war of extermination against the much-hated Western nations whose empires dominated the world. From to , the Unionist Government of the Britain authorised the immigration to South Africa of approximately 63, Chinese labourers to work the gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin after the conclusion of the Second Boer War.

After , most Chinese miners were repatriated to China because of the great opposition to them, as "coloured people", in the white society of South Africa, much like the anti—Chinese laws in the US during the early 20th century. The mass immigration of indentured Chinese labourers to mine South African gold for wages lower than acceptable to the native white men, contributed to the electoral loss of the financially-conservative British Unionist government that then governed South Africa. On 26 March , approximately 80, people attended the social-protest demonstration against the use of Chinese labourers in the Transvaal was held in Hyde Park, London , to publicise the exploitation of Chinese South Africans.

That this meeting, consisting of all classes of citizens of London, emphatically protests against the action of the Government in granting permission to import into South Africa indentured Chinese labour under conditions of slavery, and calls upon them to protect this new colony from the greed of capitalists and the Empire from degradation.

In the event, despite the racial violence between white South African miners and Chinese miners, the Unionist government achieved the economic recovery of South Africa after the Anglo—Boer War by making the gold mines of the Witwatersrand Basin the most productive in the world. In recent years, there have been very strong anti-Chinese feelings in Turkey owing to allegations of human rights abuses against the Muslim Turkic Uighur people in China's Xinjiang province.

Both have slanted eyes". In the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, populist Prime Minister Richard Seddon compared the Chinese people to monkeys, and so used the Yellow Peril to promote racialist politics in New Zealand. In , in his first political speech, Seddon said that New Zealand did not wish her shores "deluged with Asiatic Tartars. I would sooner address white men than these Chinese.